Apa itu pelvic floor exercise??
huhu.. pengetahuan am yang baik untuk semua wanita.. tak kira la dah kawen ke, belum kawen ke..
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
|Left Levator ani from within.|
|Coronal section through the anal canal. B. Cavity of urinary bladder V.D. Ductus deferens. S.V. Seminal vesicle. R. Second part of rectum. A.C. Anal canal. L.A. Levator ani. I.S. Sphincter ani internus. E.S. Sphinear ani externus.|
|Gray’s||subject #119 420|
|Nerve||Sacral nerves 3-4 |
The pelvic floor or pelvic diaphragm is composed of muscle fibers of the levator ani, the coccygeus, and associated connective tissue which span the area underneath the pelvis. The pelvic diaphragm is a muscular partition formed by the levatores ani and coccygei, with which may be included the parietal pelvic fascia on their upper and lower aspects. The pelvic floor separates the pelvic cavity above from the perineal region (including perineum) below.
The right and left levator ani lie almost horizontally in the floor of the pelvis, separated by a narrow gap that transmits the urethra, vagina, and anal canal. The levator ani is usually considered in three parts: pubococcygeus, puborectalis, and iliococcygeus. The pubococcygeus, the main part of the levator, runs backward from the body of the pubis toward the coccyx and may be damaged during parturition. Some fibers are inserted into the prostate, urethra, and vagina. The right and left puborectalis unite behind the anorectal junction to form a muscular sling . Some regard them as a part of the sphincter ani externus. The iliococcygeus, the most posterior part of the levator ani, is often poorly developed.
The coccygeus, situated behind the levator ani and frequently tendinous as much as muscular, extends from the ischial spine to the lateral margin of the sacrum and coccyx.
Some sources do not consider “pelvic floor” and “pelvic diaphragm” to be identical, with the “diaphragm” consisting of only the levator ani and coccygeus, while the “floor” also includes the perineal membrane and deep perineal pouch. However, other sources include the fascia as part of the diaphragm.  In practice, the two terms are often used interchangeably.
Inferiorly, the pelvic floor extends into the anal triangle.
 Clinical significance
In women, the levator muscles or their supplying nerves can be damaged in pregnancy or childbirth. This occurs more commonly after a normal vaginal delivery, but can also occur following a c-section. There is some evidence that these muscles may also be damaged during a hysterectomy. Pelvic floor exercises, also known as Kegel exercises, may improve the tone and function of the pelvic floor muscles, which is of particular benefit for women (and less commonly men) who experience urinary incontinence. In addition to preventing or diminishing leakage it may improve vaginal muscle tone and consequent sexual sensation.
Damage to the pelvic floor not only contributes to urinary incontinence but can lead to pelvic organ prolapse. Pelvic organ prolapse occurs in women when pelvic organs (e.g. the vagina, bladder, rectum, or uterus) protrude into or outside of the vagina. The causes of pelvic organ prolapse are not unlike those that also contribute to urinary incontinence. These include inappropriate (asymmetrical, excessive, insufficient) muscle tone and asymmetries caused by trauma to the pelvis. Age, childbirth, family history, and hormonal status all contribute to the development of pelvic organ prolapse. The vagina is suspended by attachments to the perineum, pelvic side wall and sacrum via attachments that include collagen, elastin, and smooth muscle. Repair of lost vaginal support may involve surgery.
Perineology or Pelviperineology is a speciality dealing with the functional troubles of the three axis (urological, gynaecological and coloproctological) of the pelvic floor. “A unitary view of the pelvic organs function then creates a sort of superspecialty that must open new spaces to the research insuring to the patients more rational solutions. Perineology is then a medical branch of which we probably will hear talking more and more in the future.” ([G. Dodi, RICP 1990; 9: 113])
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